TOLUENE

UN Number: 1294 - CAS Number: 108-88-3

Also known as: ANTISAL LA, BENZENE METHYL, Methylbenzene, Methylbenzol, Phenylmethane, Toluol, Toluene
Information on chemical

Information on chemical

External resources

CAMEO Chemical Database
WISER Substance List

Description

UN number 1294
CAS number 108-88-3
Formula C7H8

Physical chemical data

Physical State (20°C) Liquid
Physical State (25°C) Liquid
Density (kg/m3)
867 [Kg/m³] at a temperature of 20°C
880.9 [Kg/m³] at a temperature of 5°C
875.7 [Kg/m³] at a temperature of 10°C
868.3 [Kg/m³] at a temperature of 20°C
Kinematic viscosity (cSt)
0.68 [cSt] at a temperature of 20°C
0.64 [cSt] at a temperature of 25°C
2.2477 [cSt] at a temperature of 5°C
2.0669 [cSt] at a temperature of 10°C
2.0845 [cSt] at a temperature of 20°C
Molar mass (g/mol) 92.14
Density of gas (kg/m3) 4.1
Solubility (g/L)
515 [g/L] at a temperature of 20°C and salinity of 0‰
535 [g/L] at a temperature of 25°C and salinity of 0‰
387 [g/L] at a temperature of 25°C and salinity of 35‰
160 [g/L] at a temperature of 20°C and salinity of 0‰
150 [g/L] at a temperature of 20°C and salinity of 5‰
110 [g/L] at a temperature of 20°C and salinity of 30‰
Boiling Point (°C) 110.8
Melting Point (°C) -95
Surface tension (mN/m)
28.52 [mN/m] at a temperature of 20°C
27.93 [mN/m] at a temperature of 25°C
29.8 [mN/m] at a temperature of 5.6°C
28.66 [mN/m] at a temperature of 11.6°C
28.01 [mN/m] at a temperature of 18.1°C
Interfacial tension (mN/m)
36.1 [mN/m] at a temperature of 25°C and salinity of 0‰
Vapour Pressure (Pa)
2932 [Pa] at a temperature of 20°C
3800 [Pa] at a temperature of 25°C
Ignition Temperature (°C) 535
Flash Point (Pensky-Martens closed cup) (°C) 4
Flash Point (Cleveland open cup) (°C) 12.8
Lower explosivity limit (LEL) (volume %) 1.27
Upper explosivity limit (UEL) (volume %) 7.1
Vapor enthalpy (J/Kg)
360065 [J/Kg] at a temperature of 110.6°C
412480 [J/Kg] at a temperature of 25°C
Combus enthalpy (J/Kg) 40500000
Specific heat capacity (J/(Kg·K)) 1707
Combustion efficiency (%) 71
Mass flow rate of the combustion surface (Kg/(m²·s)) 0.11
Rad fraction (%) 60
Henry's constant (mol/(m³·Pa)) 673

Behaviour at sea

Persistence (days) 1.6
Log kow 2.65
Log koc 2.25
Aqueous photolysis (Half-life) Not photolysable
Biodegradation in estuary environment (Half-life) (days) Not hydrolysable
Biodegradation in marine environment (Half-life) (days) 30
Bioconcentration factor (BCF) 90

Additional data

Colour colourless
Odour irritating odour
MARPOL pollution category
Category Description
Y Noxious Liquid Substances which, if discharged into the sea from tank cleaning or deballasting operations, are deemed to present a hazard to either marine resources or human health or cause harm to amenities or other legitimate uses of the sea and therefore justify a limitation on the quality and quantity of the discharge into the marine environment.
Standard behavior classification FE

Transportation data

Transport mode Bulk,Packaged
Package group II
Cargo group 32
State liquid
Temperature (°C) ambient
Pressure (Pa) ambient
Family name aromatic hydrocarbons
IMO class 3.2

Reactivity data

Acid(s) Yes
Static electricity Yes
Oxidizing agents Yes

GESAMP Hazard profile

Bioaccumulation in logPow (A1A) 2 - ≥2 and <3
Bioaccumulation in BCF (A1B) 2 - ≥10 and <100
Bioaccumulation (A1) 2 - Low potential to bioaccumulate
Biodegradation (A2) R - Readily biodegradable
Acute aquatic toxicity (B1) (LC/EC/IC50 (mg/l)) 3 - Moderately toxic
Chronic aquatic toxicity (B2) (NOEC (mg/l)) 0 - Negligible
Acute mammalian toxicity by swallowing (C1) (LD50 (mg/kg)) 0 - Negligible
Acute mammalian toxicity by skin penetration (C2) (LD50 (mg/kg)) 0 - Negligible
Acute mammalian toxicity by inhalation (C3) (LC50 (mg/l)) 0 - Negligible
Skin irritation/corrosivity (D1) 2 - Irritating
Eye irritation/corrosivity (D2) 2 - Irritating
Interference with coastal amenities (E2) E - Evaporator
Effects on wildlife and bottom habitats (E3) 3 - Is highly acutely toxic; and/or is severely irritant or corrosive to skin or eyes; and/or is carcinogenic, mutagenic or reprotoxic; and/or is a floater or persistent floater with associated health effects

Human toxicity threshold

Flammable Harmful Health Hazard
IDHL 2000
Hazard statements
Physical
H225 Highly flammable liquid and vapour.
Health
H304 May be fatal if swallowed and enters airways.
H315 Causes skin irritation.
H336 May cause drowsiness or dizziness.
H361 Suspected of damaging fertility or the unborn child.
H373 May cause damage to organs through prolonged or repeated exposure, exposure cause the hazard:
Precautionary statements
Prevention
P202 Do not handle until all safety precautions have been read and understood.
P210 Keep away from heat/sparks/open flames/hot surfaces. No smoking.
P243 Take precautionary measures against static discharge.
P260 Do not breathe dust/fume/gas/mist/vapours/spray.
P280 Wear protective gloves/protective clothing/eye protection/face protection.
Response
P301 + P310 IF SWALLOWED: Immediately call a POISON CENTER or doctor/physician.
P303 + P361 + P353 IF ON SKIN (or hair): Remove/Take off immediately all contaminated clothing. Rinse skin with water/shower.
P304 + P340 IF INHALED: Remove victim to fresh air and keep at rest in a position comfortable for breathing.
P308 + P313 IF exposed or concerned: Get medical advice/attention.
P331 Do NOT induce vomiting.
TLV-TWA 100
ERPG-1 (ppm) 50
ERPG-2 (ppm) 300
ERPG-3 (ppm) 1000

Ecotoxicity

Lowest median lethal concentration (LC50) on algae (mg/l) 9.4
Lowest median lethal concentration (LC50) on crustacean (mg/l) 3.5
Lowest median lethal concentration (LC50) on fishes (mg/l) 5.4
Highest no observed effect concentration (NOEC) on algae (mg/l) 1.2
Highest no observed effect concentration (NOEC) on crustacean (mg/l) 0.74
Highest no observed effect concentration (NOEC) on fishes (mg/l) 1.4
Assessment factor (AF)
100 on the Short term
100 on the Long term
Predicted No Effect Concentration (PNEC) (µg/l)
35 [µg/l] on the Short term
7.4 [µg/l] on the Long term
Incident reports

Incident reports

Year Vessel Location Cargo type
1985 Ariadne Mogadishu, Somalia Package
Emergency Response Guidebook

Emergency Response Guidebook

Guide number: 130

See the guide or download the emergency response guidebook

At sea emergency guide

At sea emergency guide

Emergency schedule: 3-07

• 1 CLASS 3.1
FLAMMABLE LIQUIDS, FLASHPOINT BELOW -18°C Closed Cup; NOT COVERED BY OTHER SCHEDULES; IMMISCIBLE WITH WATER.
• 2 CLASS 3.2
FLAMMABLE LIQUIDS, FLASHPOINT BETWEEN -18°C AND 23°C Closed Cup; NOT COVERED BY OTHER SCHEDULES; IMMISCIBLE WITH WATER.
• 3 CLASS 3.3
FLAMMABLE LIQUIDS, FLASHPOINT BETWEEN 23°C AND 61°C Closed Cup; NOT COVERED BY OTHER SCHEDULES; IMMISCIBLE WITH WATER.

Emergency procedures

Action

Avoid all sources of ignition (e.g. naked lights, unprotected light bulbs, electric handtools).

Spillage on deck

Wash spillage overboard with copious quantities of water.

Spillage under deck

Provide adequate ventilation. Collect spillage, where practicable, using absorbent material, for safe disposal.

Fire on deck

Use water spray, foam or dry chemical. Do NOT use water jet. If possible remove receptacles likely to be involved or keep them cool with copious quantities of water.

Fire under deck

Batten down; use ship's fixed fire-fighting installation. Otherwise adopt action as for "On deck".

Special equipment to be carried

Protective gloves and boots.
Self-contained breathing apparatus.
Spray nozzles.

Remarks by UN no.

• 2-ETHYLBUTYL ACETATE (UN No. 1177)
Self-contained breathing apparatus not necessary - use goggles for eye protection.

• ISOPROPYL NITRATE (UN No. 1222)
In fire, explosion hazard.

• PINE OIL (UN No. 1272)
Self-contained breathing apparatus not necessary - use goggles for eye protection.

• ZIRCONIUM SUSPENDED IN A FLAMMABLE LIQUID (UN No. 1308)
Spillage is liable to self-ignition. Use water spray from as many hoses as possible from as far away as practicable.

• normal-PROPYL NITRATE (UN No. 1865)
In fire, explosion hazard.

• CYCLOPENTANOL (UN No. 2244)
• normal-UNDECANE (UN No. 2330)
Self-contained breathing apparatus not necessary - use goggles for eye protection.

• 3-BROMOPROPYNE (UN No. 2345)
In fire, explosion hazard. Fight fire from a protected position.

• TETRAMETHYLSILANE (UN No. 2749)
Possible self-ignition at ambient temperatures.

• ELEVATED TEMPERATURE LIQUID, FLAMMABLE, N.O.S. (UN No. 3256), with
flashpoint above 61°C c.c., at or above its flashpoint .
Spilled liquid may be very hot and remain above its flashpoint for some time after spillage.

Decision trees

Decision trees

No decision trees available

No additional data

last modified 2020-12-14T09:03:00+00:00